The Fourth Phase of Water

Cellular

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Does water have a fourth phase, beyond solid, liquid and vapor?

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The Fourth Phase of Water

University of Washington Bioengineering Professor Gerald Pollack explores this question. Not all water is H2O, a radical departure from what you may have learned from textbooks.

Pollack received his PhD in biomedical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania in 1968. He then joined the University of Washington faculty and is now professor of Bioengineering. His interests have ranged broadly, from biological motion and cell biology to the interaction of biological surfaces with aqueous solutions. His 1990 book, Muscles and Molecules: Uncovering the Principles of Biological Motion, won an “Excellence Award” from the Society for Technical Communication; his more recent book, Cells, Gels and the Engines of Life, won that Society’s “Distinguished Award.”

Pollack received an honorary doctorate in 2002 from Ural State University in Ekaterinburg, Russia, and was…

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